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Tag: Part of Speech

Grammar Rules Review

Grammar Rules Review

English Language, Study Kit, Uncategorized, What's Hot
Grammar Rules Review This is a quick, basic grammar review for nouns, verbs, and the sometimes confusing usage of lay versus lie, and rise versus raise. This reference can be used for term papers, grammar class reviews, or simply for anyone confused or curious about the basics of English grammar. Nouns 1. Noun identification 2. Count, Mass, and Collective Nouns 3. Plural and Possessive Nouns Noun Identification What is a noun? A noun is a person, place, thing, quality, animal, idea or activity. For example: Person — Maria Place — Detroit Thing — Desk Quality — Width Animal — Dog Idea — Independence Activity — Navigation Spot the nouns in a sentence: Maria went into the city to purchase detergent. Nouns: Person — Maria Place — City Thing — Detergent The functions of no
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS

SENTENCE FRAGMENTS

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  A sentence is a group of words that contains three things: A subject (that makes sense with the verb A verb (that goes with the subject) A complete thought A sentence fragment is a group of words that lacks one or more of these three things. While there are many ways to end up with a fragment, almost every fragment is simply a result of one of the following three problems: It is missing a subject It is missing a verb. It fails to complete the thought it starts. Fragments are no big deal in conversation; spoken English is full of them. In fact, if you spoke in complete sentences for one entire day, you would probably get some strange looks. But English conventions require that you avoid writing fragments (except in very rare instances), so you must
BASIC SENTENCE STRUCTURE

BASIC SENTENCE STRUCTURE

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  Parts of Sentences: Subject, Predicate, Object, Indirect Object, Complement Every word in a sentence serves a specific purpose within the structure of that particular sentence. According to rules of grammar, sentence structure can sometimes be quite complicated. For the sake of simplicity, however, the basic parts of a sentence are discussed here. The two most basic parts of a sentence are the subject and predicate. SUBJECT The subject of a sentence is the person, place, or thing that is performing the action of the sentence. The subject represents what or whom the sentence is about. The simple subject usually contains a noun or pronoun and can include modifying words, phrases, or clauses. The man . . . PREDICATE The predicate expresses action or being wi
INTERJECTIONS

INTERJECTIONS

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Interjections are words intended to express different levels of emotion or surprise, and are usually seen as independent grammatically from the main sentence. Interjections usually stand alone and are often punctuated with an exclamation point. Oh!      Wow!      My goodness! Sometimes mild interjections are included within a sentence and are then set off by commas. Well, it's about time you showed up.  
CONJUNCTIONS

CONJUNCTIONS

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Conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses. The three different types of conjunctions indicate different relationships between the elements joined. Coordinating conjunctions link elements of equal value. Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to establish a specific relationship between elements of equal value. Subordinating conjunctions indicate that one element is of lesser value (subordinate) to another element. 1. Use a coordinating conjunction to connect elements (words, phrases, or clauses) of equal grammatical value. There are seven coordinating conjunctions in English: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet (Note: These are often remembered with the acronym FANBOYS.)  Coordinating conjunctions link equal elements. Swimming and reading are my two favorite su
PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITIONS

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Prepositions are common; they are not flashy. They are sometimes very little words, like on, in, and unlike; sometimes they are two words, like according to. A preposition combined with a noun (or pronoun), in that order, makes a prepositional phrase: in Duffy's Tavern on the dashboard of my car unlike most biologists according to most moviegoers Prepositional phrases usually tell where or when. Or, as most instructors are fond of saying, they show relationship, for example, of location (in Duffy's Tavern) or of time (in February). The formula, with variations To describe a prepositional phrase we can borrow some math shorthand (although our description does not really function like an equation--the preposition must always come first!): preposition + noun or pronoun = p
ADVERBS

ADVERBS

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An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb. An adverb usually modifies by telling how, when, where, why, under what conditions, or to what degree. An adverb is often formed by adding -ly to an adjective. Conjunctive adverbs form a separate category because they serve as both conjunctions (they connect) and adverbs (they modify). Groups of words can also function as adverb phrases or adverb clauses. (In the examples below, the adverb is in bold and the modified word is underlined.) 1. An adverb can modify a verb. The girls ran quickly but happily through the puddle. (The adverbs quickly and happily modify the verb ran by telling how.) Go to the administration office first, and then come to class.(The adverb first modifies the verb go, and the
ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVES

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An adjective is a word used to describe, or modify, noun or a pronoun. Adjectives usually answer questions like which one, what kind, or how many: that hilarious book the red one several heavy books In English adjectives usually precede nouns or pronouns. However, in sentences with linking verbs, such as the to be verbs or the "sense" verbs, adjectives can follow the verb. Dave Barry's books are hilarious; they seem so random. One good adjective can be invaluable in producing the image or tone you want. You may also "stack" adjectives--as long as you don't stack them too high. In general, if you think you need more than three adjectives, you may really just need a better noun. For instance, instead of saying the unkempt, dilapidated, dirty little house, consider just saying t
VERBS

VERBS

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If a noun was the first word you ever spoke (Mama or cookie), a verb probably followed just as soon as you learned that "Give cookie" got you better results than "Cookie." In a sentence, the verb expresses what the subject does (She hopes for the job) or what the subject is (She is confident). All verbs are one of three types: Action verbs Linking verbs Helping verbs Action verbs In a sentence, an action verb tells what the subject does. Action verbs express physical or mental actions: think, eat, collide, realize, dance. Admittedly, some of these seem more active than others. Nevertheless, realize is still as much a verb as collide: I finally realized my mistake. The outfielder collided with the second-baseman. She dances every Friday night. (In the present tense, s
PRONOUNS

PRONOUNS

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Pronouns replace nouns. Without them, language would be repetitious, lengthy, and awkward: President John Kennedy had severe back trouble, and although President John Kennedy approached stairs gingerly and lifted with care, President John Kennedy did swim and sail, and occasionally President John Kennedy even managed to play touch football with friends, family members, or co-workers. With pronouns taking the place of some nouns, that sentence reads more naturally: President John Kennedy had severe back trouble, and although he approached stairs gingerly and lifted with care, he did swim and sail, and occasionally he even managed to play touch football with friends, family members, or co-workers. The pronoun he takes the place of the proper noun President John Kennedy. This